A1 To participate in IPhO, you have to enroll in the domestic competition of your country/region, and be selected as a member of the national team.
A2 Refer to the following IPhO webpage https://www.ipho-new.org/board-member/ The Leaders of your country are listed there.
A3 A country newly seeking entry to IPhO is advised to do so as an observer country (no students, observer only) to gain experience for future participation.
If you do wish to send students to IPhO2023, the only way is to participate as a “guest team”. The exams will be conducted in the same way as the regular participants, but guest team members will not be considered for medal competition. Also note that the participation fee for a guest team is significantly higher than the case of regular participation.